INGREDIENT GLOSSARY

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Or see an Alphabetical List of Ingredients:

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A
ACACIA GUM
Acacia Gum is a purified vegetable gum obtained from the acacia tree. Sometimes referred to as gum arabic.
ACAI
Acai is a small, round, dark fruit that comes from the acai palm tree. Extracts are concentrated forms of the juice or fruit from parts of a plant.
ACEROLA
Acerola is a tropical fruit-bearing shrub or small tree that is native to the West Indies and northern South America. The juice comes from the fruit of this shrub. Extracts are concentrated forms of the juice or fruit from a plant.
ACESULFAME POTASSIUM
Acesulfame-potassium is a calorie-free sugar substitute also known as Ace-K and by the brand name Sunett (R). It is approximately 200 times sweeter than table sugar (sucrose). Acesulfame potassium has been approved by the FDA and health organizations worldwide. It has been used in Europe since 1983 and in the U.S. since 1988. For more information about Acesulfame-K and other low calorie sweeteners please visit the Calorie Control Council at www.caloriecontrol.org
ALPHA TOCOPHERYL ACETATE
See Vitamin E Acetate
ANTIOXIDANT
Definitions of antioxidants vary widely. There is, however, general agreement that a dietary antioxidant is a substance in foods that significantly decreases the adverse effects of certain residues that come from the normal digestion and metabolism of food. Vitamin C and Vitamin E have recognized antioxidant properties as do many substances found in plants.
ARTIFICIAL COLOR
Artificial colors are ingredients added to our beverages to offset natural color loss from exposure to light, air, temperature extremes, and/or storage conditions; to correct natural variations in the color of our ingredients; or simply for the fun that color can provide. All colors used in our products are approved by the FDA.
ARTIFICIAL FLAVOR
Artificial Flavors are ingredients used for flavoring that are not derived from a natural substance such as a fruit or fruit juice, spice, vegetable or herb. All flavors, natural and artificial, used in our beverages are safe and legal.
ASCORBIC ACID
Ascorbic Acid is another name for Vitamin C
ASPARTAME
Aspartame is a sweetener made up of two amino acids: aspartic acid and phenylalanine. When aspartic acid and phenylalanine are combined they create a sweet taste similar to sugar. Aspartame is a high intensity sweetener, 200 times sweeter than sugar, so only a small amount is needed to sweeten a soft drink

B
BENZOIC ACID
Benzoic acid is added to our products in the form of potassium benzoate or sodium benzoate. The FDA has approved both potassium benzoate and sodium benzoate for use in foods and beverages.
BETA-CAROTENE
Beta-Carotine is a substance found in many fruits and vegetables such as carrots and tomatoes. Once consumed the body can convert beta-carotene into Vitamin A
BLACK CARROT JUICE
Black carrots are carrots that are a deep purple color. They contain anthocyanins which give them this color.
BLACK CURRANT EXTRACT
Black currants are the edible berries of a shrub native to Northern/Central Europe and Asia. Extracts are concentrated forms of the juice or fruit parts of a plant.
BLUE 1
Blue 1 is an FD&C approved color
BREWED ESPRESSO COFFEE
Espresso is coffee that is brewed by forcing very hot water that is under high pressure through coffee beans that typically have a dark roast and have been ground to a very fine consistency.
BREWED TEA
Brewed tea made by steeping tea leaves in hot water. All true tea comes from the camellia sinenis plant. Black tea is different from green, white or oolong teas in that is undergoes a process of drying and aging that results in a richer flavor than other teas.
BROMINATED VEGETABLE OIL
BVO is widely used by soft drink makers to help keep flavoring oils well-blended. Since oils do not mix well with water, stabilizers, like BVO, help dissolve and keep the flavor oils evenly distributed throughout the beverages. Because BVO is used in trace amounts (no more than 15 parts per million or 0.0015%) it does not add fat to the product. BVO is usually derived from corn or soybean oil.
B-VITAMINS
B–vitamins are essential for good health and have been shown to be important for helping the body process protein, carbohydrates and fats. B vitamins are important for the metabolism and proper functioning of the immune and nervous systems. There are many vitamins that make up the B Vitamin complex including: Thiamine (Vitamin B1), Riboflavin (Vitamin B2), Niacin (Vitamin B3), Pantothenic acid or pantothenate (Vitamin B5), Pyridoxine hydrochloride (Vitamin B6), Bioton (Vitamin B7), Folic Acid or Folate (Vitamin B9), and Cyanocobalamin (Vitamin B12).

C
CAFFEINE
Caffeine occurs in more than 60 plants such as coffee beans, tea leaves, kola nuts, guarana and cacao beans, and is found in many common foods and beverages made from these plants such as coffee, tea and chocolate. It is sometimes added to beverages as part of their overall flavor profile. Its classic bitter taste enhances some flavors and balances the sweetness of other flavors.
CALCIUM CHLORIDE
Calcium chloride is a form of calcium that is a salt.
CALCIUM CITRATE
Calcium citrate a form of calcium that is the salt of citric acid. It is used to provide a source of calcium in the diet. It is also used to give a tart taste to certain beverages.
CALCIUM DISODIUM EDTA
Calcium Disodium EDTA is an abbreviation for calcium disodium ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid, an ingredient that is widely used in the food industry as a preservative and stabilizer.
CALCIUM D-PANTOTHENATE (VITAMIN B5)
Calcium pantothenate is a form of pantothenic acid -- a B vitamin (B5) that performs a wide variety of functions in the body. Pantothenic acid is essential for the metabolism of food.
CALCIUM LACTATE
Calcium Lactate is a salt made by combining calcium carbonate and lactic acid
CALCIUM PHOSPHATE
Calcium phosphate is a form of calcium that is the salt of phosphoric acid.
CANE OR BEET SUGAR
See Sugar
CANE SUGAR
See Sugar
CARAMEL
Caramel is a color and flavoring that is added to some beverages to provide a brown color or to improve taste. Caramel also protects beverages from harmful effects of light and acts as an emulsifier to maintain a uniform blend of ingredients and flavors.
CARBONATED WATER
Carbonated water, also known as soda water, sparkling water or seltzer water, is water containing carbon dioxide which makes it effervescent or bubbly.
CARMINE COLOR
Carmine/Cochineal is a crimson-red color used in beverages and foods
CARRAGEENAN
Carrageenan is derived from plant extracts (algae or seaweed)
CELLULOSE GEL
Cellulose is the structural component of the primary cell wall of green plants. A gel is a substance where particles have combined with liquids to produce a thick jelly-like product.
CELLULOSE GUM
Cellulose Gum is an additive that is approved use in many kinds of processed foods and has a wide range of applications. Cellulose gum is derived from cellulose, which is plant derived.
CHAMOMILE EXTRACT
Chamomile is a member of the daisy family, is native to Europe and Western Asia, and has been used for many years as a herb and to make common beverages. Extracts are concentrated forms of the plant.
CHROMIUM PICOLINATE
Chromium Picolinate is a combination of the essential trace mineral chromium and picolinic acid. Also found in breast milk. A form of chromium that is easily absorbed and used by the body.
CITRIC ACID
Citric Acid can be found in citrus fruits such as lemons and oranges, however can be made from multiple sources, including corn. It is used to bring out the flavor of other ingredients and imparts a tang or tartness on its own to beverages. It has the same function in soft drinks as it has in juice
CITRUS PECTIN
Citrus Pectin is a soluble fiber that comes from citrus rinds.
CLARIFIED JUICE CONCENTRATE
Clarified Juice Concentrate is made by removing water from juice, filtering it to remove the pulp and to improve consistency. The clear juice is added to our products to create its unique flavors.
COCOA
Cocoa comes from the seeds of the cacao tree and is the base for making chocolate. There are two types of unsweetened cocoa, unalkalized and alkalized cocoa. Unalkalized cocoa is milder in flavor and lighter in color while alkalized is richer in flavor and darker in color. Alkalized, cocoa is treated to neutralize its naturally occurring acids and to deliver a darker color.
CREAM
The FDA sets standards of composition for milk and different types of cream. These standards give minimum milk fat requirements which define the different types of milk and cream. To meet these FDA standards, light cream, also called coffee cream or table cream, must have at least 18% milk fat, but less than 30% milk fat. Heavy cream must have at least 36% milk fat. All cream products are pasteurized or ultra-pasteurized.
CYANOCOBALAMIN
A form of Vitamin B12. Vitamin B12, like the other B vitamins, is important for a wide number of functions in the body including metabolism, the formation of red blood cells, and the maintenance of the central nervous system. Vitamin B12 is found in many foods including eggs, meat, poultry, shellfish, milk, and milk products

D
DANDELION ROOT EXTRACT
A herbaceous perennial plant of the aster family. (Extracts are concentrated forms of the juice or fruit from parts of a plant.)
DEXTROSE
Another name used for the simple sugar glucose (see sugar)
DL-ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL ACETATE
See Vitamin E Acetate
D-RIBOSE
A naturally occurring five-carbon sugar that is sweet, solid, water soluble substance. It is used in our beverages to provide sweetness and a source of calories. Produced from the fermentation of corn syrup and sometimes referred to as just ribose.

E
ELECTROLYTES
Minerals in the body that carry an ionic charge (i.e., sodium, potassium, iron, calcium, zinc and magnesium). Critical to help maintain the body’s fluid balance, regulate muscle contractions and transmit nerve impulses.
ERYTHORBIC ACID
Chemically identical to vitamin C (ascorbic acid), the only difference being the shape of the molecule.
ERYTHRITOL
A type of sweetener called a Polyol. They have been used to sweeten foods around the world for many years. Globally many regulatory agencies have reviewed the use of polyols as a sweetener and have approved them as safe.
ESTER GUM
See Glycerol Ester of Wood Rosin
EXTRACT
Concentrated forms of the juice or fruit from parts of a plant

F
FILTERED WATER
Water that has been passed through a device which removes impurities from water by means of a fine physical barrier, or chemical process. Has fewer total dissolved solids (TDS) than water that has not been filtered.
FOLATE
A form of Vitamin B9. B–vitamins are essential for good health and have been shown to be important for helping the body process protein, carbohydrates and fats. For more information, see "B vitamins."
FOLIC ACID
A form of Vitamin B9. B–vitamins are essential for good health and have been shown to be important for helping the body process protein, carbohydrates and fats. For more information, see "B vitamins."
FRUCTOSE
A simple sugar made up of a single sugar molecule and is found in fruit, honey, vegetables, table sugar (sucrose) and high fructose corn syrup (HFCS). Note: Table sugar (sucrose) and HFCS are both made of a combination of fructose and another simple sugar, glucose.
FRUIT PUREE
Similar to a fruit juice in that it is extracted from a fruit by a mechanical process, however a puree is different from juice in that it contains fruit pulp and is thicker than juice. Purees have the characteristic color, aroma and flavors of the fruits they come from.
FUMARIC ACID
A tart tasting acid. Can be used as a flavor to impart taste, and as a buffering agent to help maintain a particular degree of acidity.

G
GARCINIA CAMBOGIA RIND EXTRACT
A small fruit that is indigenous to India and parts of Asia. The rind is a source of hydroxycitric acid. (Extracts are concentrated forms of the juice or fruit from parts of a plant.) Brand Name CitriMax®
GINSENG
A perennial herb which has been used for many years in beverages.
GLUCOSE
A simple sugar made up of a single sugar molecule and is found in fruit, honey, vegetables, table sugar (sucrose) and high fructose corn syrup (HFCS). Note: Table sugar (sucrose) and HFCS are both made of a combination of glucose and another simple sugar, fructose.
GLYCEROL ESTER OF ROSIN
A purified rosin from pine trees that is combined with glycerin to form glycerol esters, which make it more soluble.
GREEN TEA
All true tea comes from the camellia sinensis plant. Green tea is different from black or oolong teas in that it has not undergone as much ageing or drying during processing and, as a result, is lighter in flavor.
GUARANA (PAULLINIA CUPANA)
A nut like seed of a climbing vine that primarily grows in Brazil. Source of caffeine. Has been used as a flavor for many years in foods and beverages.
GUM ARABIC
See Acacia Gum

H
HIBISCUS
Hibiscus plants are a common type of plants found in many regions. Hibiscus is a primary ingredient in many herbal teas. Provides a tart, refreshing flavors to foods and beverages. One specific variety, Hibiscus sabdariffa, is also known as Jamaica
HIGH FRUCTOSE CORN SYRUP
A liquid sweetener which is similar to sucrose (table sugar) in chemical composition, calories, sweetness, absorption and metabolism but is made from corn. Found in most non-diet soft drinks, ready-to-drink teas, juice drinks, sports drinks and other non-diet sweetened beverages, it is also a key sweetening ingredient in many food products. HFCS is used because of its ability to easily mix together with other food and beverage ingredients and provide a sweetness intensity equivalent to sugar. HFCS has the same calories as sucrose —approximately 4 kilocalories per gram and can replace sugar in one-for-one proportions

I
INOSITOL
A type of sugar called a polyol that has a different chemical structure than glucose. It is a basic part of cell membranes, and is important in nerve, brain and muscle function.
INSTANT TEA
Tea that dissolves quickly in cold or hot water. It consists of brewed tea that is dehydrated and granulated or powdered

J
JUICE
A liquid that is contained in fruits and vegetables. It is prepared by crushing or squeezing fresh fruits or vegetables in order to obtain their liquids and sometimes to also obtain some of the pulp that remains after crushing or squeezing.
JUICE CONCENTRATE
Made by removing water from a fruit or vegetable juice. Making a concentrate also reduces the weight and volume for transportation of ingredients. If a fruit or vegetable juice is reconstituted from a concentrate, the amount of water that can be added to make it equivalent to the fruit juice is regulated by the US FDA.

L
L-CARNITINE
An amino acid involved in the metabolism of fats
LEMON BALM EXTRACT
A plant native to Europe which is sometimes called Sweet Mary, Honey Plant, or Melissa. Extracts are concentrated forms of the juice or fruit from a plant.
L-THEANINE
An amino acid
LYCOPENE
A red plant pigment. Inherent in foods such as tomatoes, guava, watermelon and pink grapefruit

M
MALIC ACID
A dicarboxylic acid, you can find malic acid in a variety of fruits and many sour and tart-tasting foods. Your body also produces and breaks down malic acid as part of the citric acid cycle. In the citric acid cycle, malic acid provides your cells with energy and carbon structure for the formation of amino acids.
MALTODEXTRIN
A polysaccharide usually produced mainly from corn starch, however can be from rice or wheat (if derived from wheat, would be labeled properly for allergens). Easily digested and metabolized. Can be made from resistant starches and are treated by the body like fiber. Despite its name, maltodextrin is not related to barley or other malts.
MODIFIED FOOD STARCH
A polysaccharide (made up of many simple sugars that are linked together by chemical bonds to form a long chain of sugar molecules). Manufactured by treating starch (usually corn based, however may be derived from wheat, rice, potato or tapioca) to break the starch into shorter chains of sugar molecules. This process produces a starch that has more desirable and useful characteristics such as improved solubility, acid stability and texture.
MONOPOTASSIUM PHOSPHATE
A soluble salt which is a nutritive source of phosphorus and potassium

N
NATUAL FLAVORS
A flavor that is derived from a natural substance such as a fruit or fruit juice, spice, vegetable or herb. The term natural favor is defined by the FDA and all of PepsiCo’s flavors meet this definition.
NIACIN
Niacin is one of the B Vitamins (B3). A water soluble vitamin that helps the body process protein and fats and maintain a healthy nervous system, skin and digestion. Normally found in peanuts, beans and whole grain breads or cereals
NIACINAMIDE (VITAMIN B3)
One of the components of Vitamin B, which is made up of Niacin and Niacinamide.
NONFAT MILK
The FDA and USDA have set standards for the composition of milk, these standards provide the minimum and maximum milkfat requirements for the different types of milk. Nonfat milk is commonly referred to as Skim Milk. According to the standards, nonfat milk must have less than 0.5 percent milk fat and contain 8.25 percent milk solids that are not fat.

P
PANAX GINSENG EXTRACT
Comes from the leaves of the Panax ginseng plant, also known as Korean ginseng. The main active components of ginseng are called ginsenosides
PANAX GINSENG ROOT EXTRACT
Comes from the roots of the Panax ginseng plant, also known as Korean ginseng. The main active components of ginseng are called ginsenosides
PANTOTHENATE
Pantothenic Acid and Pantothenate are common names for Vitamin B5. B–vitamins are essential for good health and have been shown to be important for helping the body process protein, carbohydrates and fats. For more information, see "B vitamins."
PECTIN
A soluble dietary fiber found in the cell walls of fruits and vegetables. In human digestion, pectin goes through the system intact and serves as a bulking agent. Since it is not absorbed, it has no nutritive value other than fiber. Pectin is produced commercially as a powder and mainly extracted from citrus fruits.
PHENYLALANINE
An essential amino acid found in many protein containing foods. It is also one of the two amino acid components present in aspartame (NutraSweet(R)). All products sweetened with aspartame carry a statement on the label to alert individuals with the rare genetic disease, phenylketonuria. These people must restrict their intake of phenylalanine. The statement reads Phenylketonurics: Contains Phenylalanine. Phenylalanine is found in almost all foods that contain protein such as beef, milk, fish, eggs, and cheese. People with the disease phenylketonuria must avoid eating these foods as well as avoiding intake of phenylalanine itself. For the rest of the population phenylalanine and phenylalanine containing foods are completely safe. For comparisons sake, an 8-ounce glass of milk has more than 4 times as much phenylalanine as a 12-ounce Diet Pepsi.
PHOSPHORIC ACID
Phosphoric acid is added to some soft drinks to act as an acidulant. Acidulants add a pleasant tartness to soft drinks. The use of phosphoric acid results in the beverage having some dietary phosphorus.
POTASSIUM
An essential dietary mineral and an electrolyte that helps meets the mineral needs of active people. Found naturally in fruits, vegetables and meats (orange and grapefruit juices are good sources). In beverages, it may be added for its nutrient value or come from parts of other ingredients.
POTASSIUM BENZOATE
The active form which is found in beverages is benzoic acid
POTASSIUM CITRATE
Salt form of citric acid.
POTASSIUM SORBATE
Potassium salt of sorbic acid
POTASSIUM SULFATE
Mineral salt of potassium
PURIFIED STEVIA LEAF EXTRACT
Purified Stevia Leaf Extract, also known as Reb-A and by the brand name PureVia®, is a low calorie sweetener that is 200 times sweeter than sugar so it has virtually no calories when used in foods and beverages. It may be consumed safely by phenylketonurics.
PURIFIED WATER
Water that is produced by distillation, deionization, reverse osmosis or other suitable process that meets appropriate standards to be called purified water. Must contain no more than 10 ppm of dissolved solids. For more information, please refer to www.aquafina.com
PYRIDOXINE HYDROCHLORIDE
Chemical name for vitamin B6, a water soluble vitamin that performs a wide variety of functions in the body. Found in many foods including beans, nuts, legumes, eggs, meats, fish and whole grains.

Q
QUILLAIA
A purified (cooked, filtered and pasteurized) extract derived from the bark of the Quillaia tree.

R
RED 40
An FD&C approved color
REDUCED FAT MILK
The FDA sets standards of composition for milk and different types of cream. These standards give minimum milk fat requirements which define the different types of milk and cream. To meet these FDA standards, reduced fat milk, must have between 0.5 and 2 % milk fat and contain 8.25% milk solids that are not fat.
RIBOFLAVIN
Water-soluble B-Vitamin (B2) that is important for body growth and red blood cell production. Helps in releasing energy from the foods a person eats. Found in dairy products, meats, poultry, and fish. May be used as a food colorant (yellow to orange-yellow color).
ROSE HIP EXTRACT
Fruit of the rose plant. Contains vitamin C. Extracts are concentrated forms of the juice or fruit from parts of a plant

S
SALT
A mineral substance composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl) which is used to add flavor to foods. Chloride and sodium ions, the two major components of salt, are needed by all known living creatures. PepsiCo uses non-iodized salt in our products
SKIM MILK
See non-fat milk
SODIUM
A dietary mineral and electrolyte. One of the main components of the fluids in the human body and plays a vital role, helping to carry nutrients to cells. Necessary for the regulation of blood and body fluids, transmission of nerve impulses, heart activity, and certain metabolic functions
SODIUM BENZOATE
The sodium salt of benzoic acid.
SODIUM CITRATE
The sodium salts of citric acid
SODIUM HEXAMETAPHOSPHATE
An organic compound made from sodium, phosphorous and oxygen. More commonly called Sodium Polymetaphosphate or Graham's Salt
SODIUM SACCHARIN
One of the FDA approved sugar substitutes. Has been evaluated for safety and is approved as a sweetener in more than 100 countries
SOY PROTEIN ISOLATE
Purified source or protein from soy. Supplies a high quality of protein that contains all the essential amino acids
SPARKLING WATER
Carbonated water that is flavorless, effervescent or bubbly water. Human-made sparkling water, also known as soda water, seltzer and club soda, was introduced in the late 18th century when a process was developed to inject carbon di-oxide into water.
SPIRULINA
A member of the blue algae family
SPRING WATER
Water that comes from an underground source where the water flows naturally to the surface of the earth.
SUCRALOSE
Sucralose is also known by its brand name Splenda(R). It has no calories and is 600 times sweeter than table sugar (sucrose). More than 100 human safety studies have been conducted over 20 years and have shown that sucralose is safe. It has been approved for use in foods and beverages by the FDA and in more than 40 countries
SUGAR
Sugar is the common name for table sugar or sucrose which is made up of the two simple sugars glucose and fructose. General term used to describe simple sugars which are types of carbohydrates. Sugars are used as sweeteners to improve the palatability of foods and beverages In addition, sugars are used to confer certain functional attributes to foods such as viscosity, texture, body, and browning capacity. The sugars listed on the Nutrition Facts label include inherent sugars (like those in fruit and milk) as well as those added to foods and beverages.
SUNFLOWER OIL
Oil that comes from sunflower seeds. Light in taste and appearance. It is a combination of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats with low saturated fat levels.

T
TAURINE
An amino acid, which is one of the building blocks for making protein in the body. Commonly found in meat, poultry, eggs, dairy products and fish. Because of its name some people mistakenly think that Taurine comes from bulls but this is not true. There are no animal products or by-products in taurine
TEA
Tea is typically made by steeping leaves from the camellia sinensis plant in hot water. Typically tea refers to black tea, as it is the most common type of tea. Black tea differs from other types due to the process of drying and ageing, that results on a richer flavor than other teas
THIAMIN
The common name for Vitamin B1. B–vitamins are essential for good health and have been shown to be important for helping the body process protein, carbohydrates and fats. For more information, see "B vitamins."
TOCOPHERYL
See Vitamin E Acetate
TREATED WATER
Water that has gone through one or more processes, such as filtration, ozonation or reverse osmosis to remove impurities and improve taste
TRICALCIUM PHOSPHATE
A source of phosphorus that also provides the essential mineral calcium

V
VANILLA EXTRACT
Comes from one of several vanilla plants.
VITAMIN A PALMITATE
A supplemental form of vitamin A
VITAMIN B1
See Thiamine and B Vitamins
VITAMIN B12
See Cyanocobalamin and B Vitamins
VITAMIN B2
See Riboflavin and B Vitamins
VITAMIN B3
See Niacin and B Vitamins
VITAMIN B5
See Pantothenic Acid and B Vitamins
VITAMIN B6
See Pyridoxine Hydrochloride and B Vitamins
VITAMIN B9
See Folic Acid and B Vitamins and B Vitamins
VITAMIN C
See Ascorbic Acid
VITAMIN D
A fat-soluble vitamin that is found in food and can also be made in your body after exposure to sun. Helps to maintain normal blood levels of calcium and phosphorus. By promoting calcium absorption, vitamin D helps to form and maintain strong bones.
VITAMIN E
See Vitamin E Acetate
VITAMIN E (AS ACETATE)
A fat soluble vitamin that exists in 8 different forms. Each form has different potencies or functional uses in the body. One of the more common forms is alpha-tocopheryl acetate, which functions as an antioxidant.

W
WHITE TEA
Made from young tea leaves that are minimally aged and dried

X
XANTHAN GUM
A powder produced by the fermentation of a carbohydrate

Y
YELLOW 5
An FD&C approved color. Sometimes called Sunset Yellow
YELLOW 6
An FD&C approved color. Sometimes called Tartrazine
YERBA MATE EXTRACT
Derived from a widely cultivated, medium sized evergreen tree. The leaves have been used for many years to make common beverages. A source of polyphenols and caffeine
YUCCA EXTRACT
Concentrated material made from the Yucca plant

Z
ZINC METHIONINE SULFATE
A zinc supplement that is easy for the body to absorb
ZINC OXIDE
A source of zinc
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